provide, requireFunction


provide module-name implementation-dependent

require module-name &optional pathname-list implementation-dependent

Arguments and Values

module-name — a string designator.

pathname-listnil, or a designator for a non-empty list of pathname designators. The default is nil.


provide adds the module-name to the list held by *modules*, if such a name is not already present.

require tests for the presence of the module-name in the list held by *modules*. If it is present, require immediately returns. Otherwise, an attempt is made to load an appropriate set of files as follows: The pathname-list argument, if non-nil, specifies a list of pathnames to be loaded in order, from left to right. If the pathname-list is nil, an implementation-dependent mechanism will be invoked in an attempt to load the module named module-name; if no such module can be loaded, an error of type error is signaled.

Both functions use string= to test for the presence of a module-name.

;;; This illustrates a nonportable use of REQUIRE, because it 
;;; depends on the implementation-dependent file-loading mechanism. 

(require "CALCULUS") 

;;; This use of REQUIRE is nonportable because of the literal 
;;; physical pathname. 

(require "CALCULUS" "/usr/lib/lisp/calculus") 

;;; One form of portable usage involves supplying a logical pathname, 
;;; with appropriate translations defined elsewhere. 

(require "CALCULUS" "lib:calculus") 

;;; Another form of portable usage involves using a variable or 
;;; table lookup function to determine the pathname, which again 
;;; must be initialized elsewhere. 

(require "CALCULUS" *calculus-module-pathname*)
Side Effects

provide modifies *modules*.

Affected By

The specific action taken by require is affected by calls to provide (or, in general, any changes to the value of *modules*).

Exceptional Situations

Should signal an error of type type-error if module-name is not a string designator.

If require fails to perform the requested operation due to a problem while interacting with the file system, an error of type file-error is signaled.

An error of type file-error might be signaled if any pathname in pathname-list is a designator for a wild pathname.

See Also

*modules*, Section 19.1.2 (Pathnames as Filenames)


The functions provide and require are deprecated.

If a module consists of a single package, it is customary for the package and module names to be the same.