Apropos

 boole Function

Syntax

boole op integer-1 integer-2 result-integer

Arguments and Values

integer-1 — an integer.

integer-2 — an integer.

result-integer — an integer.

Description

boole performs bit-wise logical operations on integer-1 and integer-2, which are treated as if they were binary and in two’s complement representation.

The operation to be performed and the return value are determined by op.

boole returns the values specified for any op in Figure 12–17.

Examples
``` (boole boole-ior 1 16) → 17
(boole boole-and -2 5) → 4
(boole boole-eqv 17 15) → -31

;;; These examples illustrate the result of applying BOOLE and each
;;; of the possible values of OP to each possible combination of bits.
(progn
(format t "~&Results of (BOOLE <op> #b0011 #b0101) ...~
~%---Op-------Decimal-----Binary----Bits---~%")
(dolist (symbol '(boole-1     boole-2    boole-and  boole-andc1
boole-andc2 boole-c1   boole-c2   boole-clr
boole-eqv   boole-ior  boole-nand boole-nor
boole-orc1  boole-orc2 boole-set  boole-xor))
(let ((result (boole (symbol-value symbol) #b0011 #b0101)))
(format t "~& ~A~13T~3,' D~23T~:*~5,' B~31T ...~4,'0B~%"
symbol result (logand result #b1111)))))
⊳ Results of (BOOLE <op> #b0011 #b0101) ...
⊳ ---Op-------Decimal-----Binary----Bits---
⊳  BOOLE-1       3          11    ...0011
⊳  BOOLE-2       5         101    ...0101
⊳  BOOLE-AND     1           1    ...0001
⊳  BOOLE-ANDC1   4         100    ...0100
⊳  BOOLE-ANDC2   2          10    ...0010
⊳  BOOLE-C1     -4        -100    ...1100
⊳  BOOLE-C2     -6        -110    ...1010
⊳  BOOLE-CLR     0           0    ...0000
⊳  BOOLE-EQV    -7        -111    ...1001
⊳  BOOLE-IOR     7         111    ...0111
⊳  BOOLE-NAND   -2         -10    ...1110
⊳  BOOLE-NOR    -8       -1000    ...1000
⊳  BOOLE-ORC1   -3         -11    ...1101
⊳  BOOLE-ORC2   -5        -101    ...1011
⊳  BOOLE-SET    -1          -1    ...1111
⊳  BOOLE-XOR     6         110    ...0110
→ NIL```
Exceptional Situations

Should signal type-error if its first argument is not a bit-wise logical operation specifier or if any subsequent argument is not an integer.

logand

Notes

In general,

`(boole boole-and x y) ≡ (logand x y)`

Programmers who would prefer to use numeric indices rather than bit-wise logical operation specifiers can get an equivalent effect by a technique such as the following:

```;; The order of the values in this `table' are such that
;; (logand (boole (elt boole-n-vector n) #b0101 #b0011) #b1111) => n
(defconstant boole-n-vector
(vector boole-clr   boole-and  boole-andc1 boole-2
boole-andc2 boole-1    boole-xor   boole-ior
boole-nor   boole-eqv  boole-c1    boole-orc1
boole-c2    boole-orc2 boole-nand  boole-set))
→ BOOLE-N-VECTOR
(proclaim '(inline boole-n))
→ implementation-dependent
(defun boole-n (n integer &rest more-integers)
(apply #'boole (elt boole-n-vector n) integer more-integers))
→ BOOLE-N
(boole-n #b0111 5 3) → 7
(boole-n #b0001 5 3) → 1
(boole-n #b1101 5 3) → -3
(loop for n from #b0000 to #b1111 collect (boole-n n 5 3))
→ (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1)```