apply function &rest args+ {result}*

    Arguments and Values

    function — a function designator.

    args — a spreadable argument list designator.

    results — the values returned by function.


    Applies the function to the args.

    When the function receives its arguments via &rest, it is permissible (but not required) for the implementation to bind the rest parameter to an object that shares structure with the last argument to apply. Because a function can neither detect whether it was called via apply nor whether (if so) the last argument to apply was a constant, conforming programs must neither rely on the list structure of a rest list to be freshly consed, nor modify that list structure.

    setf can be used with apply in certain circumstances; see Section (APPLY Forms as Places).

    (setq f '+)  + 
    (apply f '(1 2))  3 
    (setq f #'-)  #<FUNCTION -> 
    (apply f '(1 2))  -1 
    (apply #'max 3 5 '(2 7 3))  7 
    (apply 'cons '((+ 2 3) 4))  ((+ 2 3) . 4) 
    (apply #'+ '())  0 
    (defparameter *some-list* '(a b c)) 
    (defun strange-test (&rest x) (eq x *some-list*)) 
    (apply #'strange-test *some-list*)  implementation-dependent 
    (defun bad-boy (&rest x) (rplacd x 'y)) 
    (bad-boy 'a 'b 'c) has undefined consequences. 
    (apply #'bad-boy *some-list*) has undefined consequences.
    (defun foo (size &rest keys &key double &allow-other-keys) 
      (let ((v (apply #'make-array size :allow-other-keys t keys))) 
        (if double (concatenate (type-of v) v v) v))) 
    (foo 4 :initial-contents '(a b c d) :double t) 
        #(A B C D A B C D)
    See Also

    funcall, fdefinition, function, Section 3.1 (Evaluation), Section (APPLY Forms as Places)